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Analytical Report: Evidence of war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law committed during Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine (22 March – 5 April 2022)

Analytical Report: Evidence of war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law committed during Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine (22 March – 5 April 2022)
Analytical Report: Evidence of war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law committed during Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine (22 March – 5 April 2022)
In partnership with:
Truth Hounds

International Partnership for Human Rights publishes the new analysis in a series of publications on war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law committed during Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine, prepared jointly by IPHR and Truth Hounds.

Russian forces have continued their invasion of Ukraine; shelling and destroying Ukrainian cities; torturing, raping, and killing hundreds of civilians; and forcibly transferring local residents.

During the reporting period, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation committed the following war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law (IHL): (1) Torture and willful killing; (2) sexual violence; (3) unlawful attacks on civilians; (4) attacks on civilian objects; (5) attacks on specially protected objects; (6) impeding access to humanitarian aid; (7) forcible transfer of civilians; (8) pillage and seizure of property; (9) use of human shields; and (10) attacks that cause severe damage to the natural environment.[1]

1) Torture and wilful killing

International criminal law (ICL) and IHL prohibit torture and inhuman treatment of any person, regardless of status, whether civilian or military.[2]  ICL and IHL also prohibit attacking or killing civilians.[3] These two types of war crimes and violations of IHL are analysed in the report. In all cases of torture covered, victims were found dead. Violations of the prohibition on killing civilians, as well as inhuman treatment, constitute serious violations of IHL.[4] Torture and killing constitute war crimes and/or crimes against humanity.[5]

During the reporting period, the Armed Forces of Ukraine regained control over the territory of Kyiv[6] and Sumy Oblasts[7] which had been occupied by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for several weeks. After the end of the occupation by the Russian Federation, about 400 executed and tortured civilians were found in Kyiv Oblast in Bucha, Hostomel, and Motyzhyn; another 200 people went missing in Borodyanka.[8] It is also known that there have been persecutions and executions of civilians in Sumy[9] and Chernihiv[10] Oblasts.]

The bodies of the Sukhenko family in the village of Motyzhyn.

23/03/2022: In Motyzhyn (Kyiv Oblast), Russian troops abducted the village head, Olha Sukhenko, as well as her husband and son.[11] After the deoccupation of the village, the bodies of Olha Sukhenko and her son, Oleksandr Sukhenko, were found in a mass grave. The body of Olha’s husband, Ivan Sukhenko, was found in a sewer well with signs of torture.[12]

30/03/2022: The mayor of Irpin (Kyiv Oblast) said that according to preliminary data, up to 300 civilians were killed in the city. Russian troops shot local residents and ran their bodies over with tanks.[13]

31/03/2022: The bodies of two men displaying signs of torture were found in Trostianets (Sumy Oblast).[14]

Killed journalist M. Levin.

01/04/2022: The body of the journalist Max Levin was found in Huta-Mezhyhirska (Kyiv Oblast). According to preliminary information, Russian troops shot him with light weapons while he was attempting to document the consequences of Russian aggression.[15]

In Konotop District (Sumy Oblast), Russian troops shot a local resident.[16]

It became known that, on 14 March, in a village near Chernihiv, Russian troops shot with three civilians from the village with infantry fighting vehicle and machine guns. Two of the victims were 17 years old, another 18.[17]

03/04/2022: It became known that in Boromlya (Sumy Oblast), Russian troops tortured and killed marathon runner Serhiy Pronevich.[18]

Twenty kilometres from Kyiv, the bodies of naked women were found under a blanket on the side of the road; Russian troops had dumped them on car tyres and tried to burn them.[19]

The bodies of those tortured to death in a children’s summer camp in Bucha.

04/04/2022: The Prosecutor General’s Office reported that in Bucha (Kyiv Oblast), occupying Russian forces tortured people en masse in a basement at a children’s summer camp. The bodies of five men with their hands tied and signs of torture were found there.[20]

05/04/2022: The head of Sumy Military Administration reported on the discovery of three tortured people in Konotop District.

2) Sexual violence

Rape and other forms of sexual violence constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity, and violations of IHL.[21] Sexual violence may also amount to torture and/or inhuman treatment, which constitutes a separate war crime and a serious violation of IHL.[22]

During the reporting period, the Prosecutor General’s Office reported that Russian troops in Ukraine had sexually assaulted women and men, including children and elderly people. Victims rarely publicly report sexual violence, so few reports of such cases appear in the media.[23]

The Ombudsman of Ukraine reported two cases of women being raped by Russian troops in Kharkiv Oblast. In the first case, a Russian soldier held a bedridden elderly woman hostage for more than a week and repeatedly raped her 29-year-old daughter. He then shot the mother of the raped woman. The latter managed to escape and is now undergoing rehabilitation. In the second case, which took place in Mala Rohan, a Russian soldier repeatedly raped a 31-year-old woman who was hiding in a school with her 5-year-old daughter, mother, sister, and brother, and other residents of the village. Holding a weapon to the woman’s head, the Russian soldier repeatedly sexually assaulted her, cut her neck and cheek with a knife, cut her hair, and hit her in the face with a book. When the Russian soldiers left the school, the woman and her family managed to walk on foot to Kharkiv and receive the necessary medical care.[24]

3) Unlawful attacks on civilians

IHL and ICL prohibit both intentional and indiscriminate attacks on civilian populations or against individuals not directly involved in hostilities.[25] Violation of this prohibition during an international armed conflict constitutes a war crime and a violation of IHL.

During the reporting period, we documented three cases of intentional attacks on civilians trying to leave the combat zone.

24/03/2022: Near Vasylkiv (Kyiv Oblast), Russian forces shelled “Kyiv–Ivano-Frankivsk” Evacuation Train № 43. Windows were smashed in three cars. There were no victims.[26]

27/03/2022: Between Shevelivka and Husarivka, Izium District (Kharkiv Oblast), Russian forces shelled a civilian car, killing three people, including a three-year-old child.[27]

30/03/2022: In Lysychansk (Luhansk Oblast), Russian forces shelled an evacuation bus carrying civilians. No one was injured.[28]

4) Attacks on civilian objects

ICL and IHL establish rules for the general protection of civilian objects and entire cities, towns, dwellings, and buildings which are undefended and which are not military objectives.[29] Attacks and other forms of violence against such objects are prohibited in international armed conflict and are considered war crimes and violations of IHL.

International law prohibits both intentional and indiscriminate attacks on civilians and civilian objects. The prohibition includes attacks which are not directed at a specific military objective; attacks which employ a method or means of combat which cannot be directed at a specific military objective or of which the effects cannot be limited and consequently are of a nature to affect military objectives and civilians or civilian objects without distinction; an attack by bombardment by any methods or means which treats as a single military objective a number of clearly separated and distinct military objectives located in a city, town, village, or other area with a concentration of civilians or civilian objects; an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.[30]

During the reporting period, the Russian Federation shelled with artillery and bombed the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, including Kharkiv, Donetsk, Luhansk, and Mykolaiv Oblasts.[31] In this section, we have described the most notorious cases of attacks, which collectively killed 98 people.

24/03/2022: In Kharkiv, Russian troops shelled a Nova Poshta office with long-range weapons; at the time local residents were at the site to receive humanitarian aid. At least six people were killed and 15 others were hospitalised with injuries.[32]

Results of the attack on the Nova Poshta office.

25/03/2022: In Kharkiv, five civilians were killed in a shelling attack on residential buildings in Osnovianskyi District.[33]

27/03/2022 In Oskil, Izium District (Kharkiv Oblast), Russian forces carried out artillery shelling, killing seven people, including a seven-year-old child. Another five people were injured.[34]

30/03/2022: In Lysychansk (Luhansk Oblast), at least seven civilians were killed by shelling,[35] including a one-year-old child.[36]

29/03/2022: In Mykolaiv, Russian forces carried out a missile strike on the Mykolaiv Regional State Administration building; at least 36 people were killed.[37]

Results of the attack on the Mykolaiv Regional State Administration building.

31/03/2022: In Donetsk Oblast, five civilians were killed and 22 injured as a result of shelling carried out by the Russian Army.[38]

01/04/2022: In Donetsk Oblast, seven civilians were killed and six injured as a result of shelling carried out by the Russian Army.[39]

03/04/2022: In Kharkiv, Russian troops shelled residential buildings in Slobidskyi District, killing 7 people and injuring 34.[40]

04/04/2022: In Mykolaiv, according to the prosecutor’s office, 12 people were killed and 41 injured as a result of an attack by Russian troops.[41] According to the mayor, Russian troops attacked Mykolaiv with prohibited[42] cluster munitions.[43]

05/04/2022: In Kharkiv and the wider region, at least six people were killed and eight more injured by Russian shelling. During the day, Russian troops attacked residential areas of Kharkiv and the Oblast 54 times, including with artillery strikes, mortar and tank shelling, and shelling by multiple-launch rocket systems.[44]

5) Attacks on specially protected objects

According to IHL and ICL standards, civilian objects receive special protection due to their humanitarian significance. Such facilities include hospitals,[45] food warehouses,[46] and installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams.[47]

During the reporting period, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation attacked at least eight specially protected objects – hospitals, food warehouses, and a dam.

23/03/2022: Near Brovary (Kyiv Oblast), Russian troops shelled warehouses storing vegetables and meat. The Veggie Trend Invest vegetable warehouse and the Vel Meat Invest meat warehouse were destroyed. Dozens of tonnes of products worth about 600 million Hryvnias were destroyed.[48]

25/03/2022: In Mariupol, the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centre for Children with Disabilities was destroyed as a result Russian shelling.[49]

In Kharkiv, in Osnovianskyi District, the Russian Army attacked a city clinic where humanitarian aid was being distributed with artillery and a Grad system. Four people died and three were injured.[50]

03/26/2022: In Severodonetsk (Luhansk Oblast), Russian troops repeatedly shelled a food warehouse.[51] According to the head of the Luhansk Regional State Administration, the Russian Army is systematically destroying food warehouses in Luhansk Oblast to generate a famine.[52]

01/04/2022: In Chernihiv, a Russian shell hit one of the branches of the Chernihiv Medical Centre of Modern Oncology. The windows were smashed and the roof and walls partially damaged. Two employees of the medical institution sustained shrapnel wounds, while another received a concussion. Twenty-two patients – palliative and post-surgical – survived the attack.[53]

02/04/2022: In Balakliya (Kharkiv Oblast), a building of the Balakliya District Hospital was damaged as a result of shelling by Russian forces. According to the head of the Kharkiv Regional Military Administration, 70 patients and personnel need immediate evacuation.[54]

A dam was blown up in Oskil (Kharkiv Oblast). The Siverskyi Donets River burst its banks and flooded several streets in Oskil[55] and the territory of Svyatohirsk Lavra in Svyatohirsk.[56]

05/04/2022: In Mariupol, Russian troops shelled a children’s hospital.[57]

6) Impeding access to humanitarian aid

IHL and ICL have special rules for providing civilians with necessary humanitarian aid during hostilities, including food, water, and medicine. The parties to an international armed conflict have an obligation to allow and facilitate the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian aid.[58] Humanitarian aid personnel and transport are protected under IHL.[59] Actions that create obstacles to the provision of humanitarian aid constitute violations of IHL and can be considered part of the war crime of starvation of civilians.[60]

In addition, IHL obliges the parties to the conflict to remove civilian populations, individual civilians and civilian objects under the control of one of the parties to the conflict from the vicinity of military objectives.[61] The parties to the conflict are obliged to ensure the removal from encircled or besieged areas of wounded, sick, infirm, and aged persons, children, and maternity cases, as well as the passage of ministers of all religions, medical personnel, and medical equipment on their way to such areas.[62]

During the reporting period, there were at least three cases in which the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation deliberately impeded access to humanitarian aid to the needy in Mariupol and Kharkiv; two cases of attacks on humanitarian personnel; and four cases of sabotage of evacuation corridors.

23/03/2022: At the entrance to (Mangush, Donetsk Oblast), Russian troops captured members of a humanitarian convoy. Eleven evacuation buses with drivers and two State Emergency Service vehicles were seized at a Russian checkpoint at the entrance to Mangush and taken away to an unknown location; contact with them has been lost.[63]

28/03/2022: Zaporizhzhia Regional Military Administration reported that Russian forces had impeded the work of humanitarian corridors. Four trucks carrying humanitarian supplies and 22 evacuation buses were blocked by Russian forces and were not able to reach Berdiansk, Vasylivka, or Dniprorudne.[64]

31/03/2022: It became known that in occupied Izium, Russian troops did not allow 20,000 residents who urgently needed evacuation to leave the city for more than 20 days.[65]

At the entrance to Berdiansk, Russian troops blocked more than 30 evacuation buses which were supposed to transport civilians to Zaporizhzhia.[66]

In Melitopol, Russian troops stole 12 humanitarian buses carrying 14 tonnes of food and medicine.[67]

01/04/2022: In Melitopol, Russian troops blocked more than 400 private vehicles moving as part of an evacuation convoy to Zaporizhzhia. The cars were not allowed through the occupiers’ checkpoint in Vasylivka.[68]

03/04/2022: In Balakliya (Kharkiv Oblast), where Balakliya District Hospital was destroyed during Russian shelling on 2 April, Russian troops shelled an evacuation convoy which had arrived to pick up people from the hospital. At least one of the evacuation bus drivers was killed.[69]

7) Forcible transfer of civilians

ICL and IHL prohibit the forcible transfer or deportation of civilian populations from occupied territories. Violations of these norms represents a war crime and/or a crime against humanity and a serious violation of IHL norms.[70]

During the reporting period, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation forcibly transferred thousands of civilians from Mariupol, Kherson, Donetsk, and Luhansk Oblasts.

26/03/2022: According to the Ombudsman of Ukraine, more than 19,600 civilians, including 3,300 children, were transferred from the territories of Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts not controlled by Ukraine.[71] Some 4,183 residents were forcibly transferred from Mariupol.[72] Among the transferred people are doctors and patients of City Hospital № 1, as well as people who were hiding from shelling there.[73]

31/03/2022: The Minister for the Temporarily Occupied Territories of Ukraine reported that occupying forces in Mariupol forcibly deported 45,000 locals to the area of Donetsk Oblast which is not controlled by Ukrainian government, as well as to Russia.[74]

According to the Ukrainian ombudsman, during the entire period of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the occupying forces deported almost 440,000 civilians, more than 91,000 of them children. In particular, the Russian Army deported more than 98,000 people from Mariupol and 90,000 from Kherson Oblast.[75]

In occupied Dokuchaevsk (Donetsk Oblast), occupying Russian authorities set up a filtration camp. The civilian population is being sent there en masse. Documents are confiscated from people. Civilians are also being interrogated by FSB officers searching for Ukrainian soldiers and law enforcement officers. According to Ukrainian intelligence, people are then transported to Russia, in particular to Taganrog (Rostov Oblast) and Krasnodar Krai. The Central Intelligence Agency reported that captured Ukrainians are not provided with medical care or proper food.[76]

8) Pillage and seizure of property

ICL and IHL protect civilian property from pillage by the parties to an armed conflict.[77]   They also prohibit the destruction and seizure of any property (including personal, collective, and state property) that is not justified by military necessity.[78]

Russian soldiers mailing looted items.

Russian troops loot the homes of locals, shops, and government offices in occupied territories. According to Ukrainian intelligence, in the Belarusian city of Naroulia, Russian soldiers organised a market where they sell looted Ukraine items – washing machines, dishwashers, refrigerators, jewelry, cars, bicycles, motorcycles, dishes, rugs, art, toys, and cosmetics. Russian military trucks are piling up in Mozyr, from which soldiers unload packages with pillaged items. The loot is sent to Russia by the Russian delivery service SDEK.[79]

24/03/2022: In Kherson, Russian troops looted the apartment of activist Kateryna Gandziuk, who was killed in 2018.[80]

2703/2022: It became known that during the occupation of the settlements of the Krasnopillia Territorial Community (Sumy Oblast), Russian troops pillaged a number of educational institutions, taking computers and video cameras, as well as breaking furniture and smashing windows.[81]

31/03/2022: In Chornobyl (Kyiv Oblast), Russian troops occupying Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant stole computers, kettles, coffee makers, and containers with other property. They also looted a nearby hotel and took kitchenware, forks, spoons, and chinaware.[82]

05/04/2022: It became known that in Melitopol, Russian troops looted agricultural machinery stores for, taking property worth a total of more than 1.5 million Euros. According to GPS-navigators, the stolen equipment was delivered to Crimea and Chechnya.[83]

9) Use of human shields

The prohibition on the use of human shields includes the presence and or movement of civilians or other protected persons in order to impede military operations. Violation of this prohibition constitutes a war crime and a serious violation of IHL.[84]

01/04/2022: It became known that in the village of Novyi Bykiv (Chernihiv Oblast), Russian troops used children as human shields when relocating their military convoys. Russian soldiers took local Ukrainian children hostage and put them in trucks to protect military machinery from attack by the Ukrainian army. They also used children as hostages as a guarantee that the local population would not give the coordinates of the enemy’s movements to Ukrainian defenders. According to the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine, such cases were also documented in Sumy, Kyiv, and Zaporizhzhia Oblasts.[85]

10) Attacks that caused severe damage to the natural environment 

The protection of the natural environment is inextricably linked to the protection of the civilian population, as the latter will suffer from the consequences of serious damage to the natural environment. IHL and ICL prohibit attacks that can cause widespread, long-term, and severe damage to the natural environment.[86]

Since the beginning Russian Federation’s current campaign of armed aggression against Ukraine, the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation have bombed oil refineries, causing catastrophic fires and air pollution.

During the reporting period, Russian troops struck four oil depots – in Kalinivtsi (Kyiv Oblast) on 24/03/2022;[87] in Dubno (Rivne Oblast) on 27/03/2022;[88] in Lutsk (Volyn Oblast) on 27/03/2022;[89] and in Lysychansk (Luhansk Oblast) on 31/03/2022.[90]


[1] The number of war crimes committed by Russian forces during the reporting period is not limited to the ones analysed in this report. The total number is much higher. The cases that were included in this report were analysed as exemplary cases of war crimes and grave breaches of international humanitarian law committed by Russia.

[2] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 7.1(f); Article 8.2(a)(ii); Geneva Convention (I) of 1949, Article 12(2); Geneva Convention (II) of 1949, Article 12(2); Geneva Convention (III) of 1949, Article 17, Article 87, Article 89; Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 32; Rule 90 of customary IHL.

[3] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 7.1(d); Article 8.2(a)(i); Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 32; Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 85 3(a).

[4] Geneva Convention (I) of 1949, Article 50; Geneva Convention (II) of 1949, Article 51; Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 147.

[5] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 7.1(f); Article 8.2(a)(ii); Article 7.1(d); Article 8.2(a)(i).

[6]Українська Правда, Всю Київську область звільнили від окупантів – Міноборони, 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/04/2/7336668/.

[7] RFE/RL, Війська РФ почали вихід із Сумської області – Живицький, 4 квітня 2022, available at: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/news-viyna-sumshchyna-vykhid/31784529.html.

[8] Суспільне, Місця масових убивств, тортур та поховання виявлені у Бучі, Гостомелі та Мотижині — Геращенко, 7 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/226276-misca-masovih-ubivstv-tortur-ta-pohovanna-viavleni-u-buci-gostomeli-ta-motizini-gerasenko/.

[9] НВ, «Тотальний терор». Які звірства вчиняють росіяни у підконтрольних їм населених пунктах Сумської області — голова ОВА Живицький, 9 березня 2022, available at: https://nv.ua/ukr/ukraine/events/yak-okupanti-terorizuyut-naselennya-u-pidkontrolnih-jim-naselenih-punktah-zhivickiy-novini-ukrajini-50223371.html.

[10] Суспільне, Людей катували і вбивали: репортаж із села Ягідне біля Чернігова, 8 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/226704-ludej-katuvali-i-vbivali-reportaz-iz-sela-agidne-bila-cernigova/ ; https://suspilne.media/225604-colovika-na-cernigivsini-cotiri-razi-vivodili-na-rozstril-suspilne-videonovini/.

[11] Суспільне, Викрадені на Київщині російськими військовими староста села Мотижин , її чоловік та син — загинули, 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224591-vikradeni-na-kiivsini-rosijskimi-vijskovimi-starosta-sela-motizin-ii-colovik-ta-sin-zaginuli/.

[12] Центр журналистских расследований, У Бучі виявили братську могилу, де поховані майже 300 людей, на вулицях десятки тіл мешканців (Фото 18+), 3 квітня 2022, available at: https://investigator.org.ua/ua/news-2/241449/.

[13] Українська Правда, “Вбитих роздавлювали танками”: в Ірпені загинули до 300 цивільних – мер, 30 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/30/7335813/.

[14] Facebook-сторінка Сумської обласної прокуратури, 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=5287122084653419&id=948846185147719.

[15] LB, Загинув документаліст і фотограф Макс Левін , 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://lb.ua/society/2022/04/02/512000_zaginuv_dokumentalist_i_fotograf.html.

[16] Telegram-канал Дмитра Живицького, 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/Zhyvytskyy/1478.

[17] Суспільне, «В нього не було зброї, тільки шапка в руках». Росіяни розстріляли 18-річного хлопця з друзями, 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224257-v-nogo-ne-bulo-zbroi-tilki-sapka-v-rukah-rosiani-rozstrilali-18-ricnogo-hlopca-z-druzami/.

[18] Українська Правда, Російські окупанти закатували та вбили українського рекордсмена Сергія Проневича, 3 квітня 2022, available at: https://life.pravda.com.ua/society/2022/04/3/248090/.

[19] НВ, Докази геноциду. У Бучі виявили десятки тіл людей, закатованих і вбитих російськими окупантами — жахливі фото, які має побачити, 3 квітня 2022, available at: світhttps://nv.ua/ukr/ukraine/events/bucha-u-misti-desyatki-til-vbitih-rosiyanami-mirnih-zhiteliv-foto-novini-ukrajini-50230646.html.

[20] Telegram-канал Офіса Генерального прокурора, Катівня на Київщині – прокурори продовжують фіксувати воєнні злочини РФ, 4 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/pgo_gov_ua/3529.

[21] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 7(1)(g); Article 8.2(b)(iv); Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 75(2)(b); Article 76(1); Article 77(1); Common Article 3(1)(c) of the 1949 Geneva Conventions;  Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 27; Rule 93 of customary IHL.

[22] For more information, see Amnesty International, Rape And Sexual Violence Human Rights Law And Standards In The International Criminal Court, Section 6, Acts Of Rape And Sexual Violence Causing Severe Pain And Suffering Must Be Charged As Torture, available at: https://www.amnesty.org/en/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/ior530012011en.pdf.

[23] Telegram-канал Офіса Генерального прокурора, Ірина Венедіктова: Зґвалтування під час війни – теж воєнний злочин, 5 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/pgo_gov_ua/3546.

[24] https://www.facebook.com/denisovaombudsman/posts/515484606599483.

[25] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b)(i), Article 8.2(b)(iv); Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 51.

[26] Українська Правда, Росіяни обстріляли евакуаційний поїзд Київ – Івано-Франківськ, 24 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/24/7334286/.

[27] Суспільне, 10 людей загинули на Ізюмщині внаслідок обстрілів РФ — прокуратура, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/222267-obstril-avtivki-na-harkivsini-zaginula-triricna-ditina/.

[28] Українська Правда, Евакуація на Луганщині: автобус із Лисичанська потрапив під обстріл, 30 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/30/7335799/.

[29] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b)(ii),(v);  Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 52.

[30] Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 51.

[31] For more information, see Bellingcat Interactive TimeMap of Incidents of Civilian Harm in Ukraine: https://ukraine.bellingcat.com/.

[32] Telegram-канал Олега Синєгубова, голови Харківської ОДА, 24 березня2022, available at: https://t.me/synegubov/2724?fbclid=IwAR3BAyZ8JIYUltYEhykOsPn0h5ggBvNlx6Aua6IdM1vpKm6tSklszUSGafQ.

[33] Facebook-сторінка Харківської обласної прокуратури, 26 березня2022, available at:  https://www.facebook.com/prokuraturakharkiv/posts/331764295651627.

[34] Суспільне, 10 людей загинули на Ізюмщині внаслідок обстрілів РФ — прокуратура, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/222267-obstril-avtivki-na-harkivsini-zaginula-triricna-ditina/.

[35] Українська Правда, Ніч в областях: росіяни гатили по Харківщині, Чернігівщині і Донбасу, є загиблі, 31 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/31/7336009/.

[36] Telegram-канал Сергія Гайдая/ Луганська ОДА (ОВА), 31 березня2022, available at: https://t.me/luhanskaVTSA/1030.

[37]  Суспільне, У Миколаєві триває пошук людей під завалами будівлі облради. Загинули щонайменше 36 людей, 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224348-u-mikolaevi-trivae-posuk-ludej-pid-zavalami-budivli-oblradi/.

[38] Telegram-канал Павла Кириленка / Донецька ОДА (ОВА), 31 березня 2022, available at: https://t.me/pavlokyrylenko_donoda/2897.

[39] Telegram-канал Павла Кириленка / Донецька ОДА (ОВА), 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/pavlokyrylenko_donoda/2902.

[40] Telegram-канал Харківської обласної прокуратури, 3 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/prokuratura_kharkiv/3266.

[41] Telegram-канал Офіса Генерального прокурора, 12 людей загинуло та 41 поранено внаслідок обстрілу Миколаєва – розпочато провадження, 5 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/pgo_gov_ua/3540.

[42] ICL and IHL also prohibit the use of indiscriminate weapons, including cluster munitions. See, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2 (xx),  Rule 71, 84 of customary IHL.

[43] Telegram-канал Сєнкевич Online, 4 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/senkevichonline/728.

[44] Telegram-канал Олега Синєгубова, голови Харківської ОДА, 5 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/synegubov/2809.

[45] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (ix); Geneva Convention (I) of 1949, Article 19; Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 18; Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 12; Rules 28 and 29 of customary IHL.

[46] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (xxv); Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 54; Rule 54 of customary IHL.

[47] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (iv); Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 56; Rule 42 of customary IHL.

[48] RFE/RL, Російські війська знищили під Броварами склади з овочами і мʼясом, 23 березня 2022, available at: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/news-brovary-sklad-prodovolstva-obstril/31766363.html.

[49] Українська Правда, Маріуполь: окупанти зруйнували Дитячий реабілітаційний центр, 25 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/25/7334579/.

[50] Telegram-канал Олега Синєгубова, голови Харківської ОДА, 25 березня 2022, available at: https://t.me/synegubov/2733.

[51] Суспільне, На Луганщині російські військові знову обстріляли продовольчі склади, 26 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/221763-na-lugansini-rosijski-vijskovi-znovu-obstrilali-prodovolci-skladi/.

[52] Facebook-сторінка Сергія Гайдая, 26 березня 2022, available at:  https://www.facebook.com/sergey.gaidai.loga/posts/139618801910845.

[53] Суспільне, Росіяни обстріляли Чернігівський центр сучасної онкології: є травмовані, 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224125-vlucanna-v-cernigivskij-centr-sucasnoi-onkologii-dvoe-ludej-travmovani/.

[54] Telegram-канал Олега Синєгубова, голови Харківської ОДА, 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://t.me/synegubov/2789.

[55] Суспільне, На Луганщині російські військові знову обстріляли продовольчі склади, 26 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/221763-na-lugansini-rosijski-vijskovi-znovu-obstrilali-prodovolci-skladi/.

[56] ND, В Святогорске из-за подрыва дамбы на харьковщине северский донец выходит из берегов, 4 квітня 2022, available at: https://novosti.dn.ua/news/322412-v-svyatogorske-iz-za-podryva-damby-na-harkovshhine-severskij-donets-vyhodit-iz-beregov.

[57] https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/04/5/7337334/.

[58] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (xxv); Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 23, 59; Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 70; Rule 55 of customary IHL.

[59] Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 71.

[60]  Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (xxv)

[61] Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 58; Rule 24 of customary IHL.

[62] Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 17.

[63] RFE/RL,Російські війська захопили водіїв та рятувальників із гуманітарної колони – Верещук, 23 березня 2022, available at: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/news-rosiiski-viiska-zahopyly-humanitarnu-kolonu-vereshchuk/31765599.html.

[64] Facebook-сторінка Олександра Старуха – голови Запорізької ОДА, 28 березня 2022, available at: https://www.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=374788544652400&id=100063637723588&sfnsn=mo.

[65] Українська Правда, Ізюм вже 20 днів фактично у блокаді – росіяни не випускають людей, 31 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/31/7336164/.

[66] Українська Правда, За день вдалося витягти з окупації менше 1500 українців: росіяни стріляють і крадуть гумдопомогу, 31 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/31/7336166/.

[67] Українська Правда, За день вдалося витягти з окупації менше 1500 українців: росіяни стріляють і крадуть гумдопомогу, 31 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/31/7336166/.

[68] Суспільне,Окупанти заблокували рух колони автомобілів з Мелітополя. Понад 400 автівок досі стоять у Василівці, 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224396-okupanti-zablokuvali-ruh-koloni-avtomobiliv-z-melitopola-ponad-400-avtivok-dosi-stoat-u-vasilivci/.

[69] Українська Правда, Харківщина: росіяни обстріляли евакуаційну колону на шляху до Балаклії, є жертви, 3 квітня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/04/3/7336904/.

[70] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 7.1(d); Article 8.2(a)(vii); Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 49; Rule 129 of customary IHL.

[71] RFE/RL, Денісова: російські військові проводять масову депортацію населення окупованих територій, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/news-denisova-prymusove-vyvezennia-ukrayinziv/31773066.html.

[72] Facebook-сторінка Людмили Денісової, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=510075580473719&set=a.244521147029165.

[73] Суспільне, У Маріуполі військові РФ насильно вивезли лікарів та пацієнтів міської лікарні №1, 26 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/221955-u-mariupoli-vijskovi-rf-nasilno-vivezli-likariv-ta-pacientiv-miskoi-likarni-no1/.

[74] Міністерство з питань реінтеграції тимчасово окупованих територій України, Примусова депортація, вбивства, сексуальне насильство: про злочини окупантів має знати увесь світ – Ірина Верещу, 31 березня 2022, available at: https://minre.gov.ua/news/prymusova-deportaciya-vbyvstva-seksualne-nasylstvo-pro-zlochyny-okupantiv-maye-znaty-uves-svit.

[75] RFE/RL, Денісова: російські військові проводять масову депортацію населення окупованих територій, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/news-denisova-prymusove-vyvezennia-ukrayinziv/31773066.html.

[76] Українська Правда, В окупованому Докучаєвську створили фільтраційний табір для маріупольців – Генштаб, 24 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/24/7334269/.

[77] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (xvi); Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 33; Rule 52 of customary IHL.

[78]  Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (xiii); Geneva Convention (I) of 1949, Article 50; Geneva Convention (II) of 1949, Article 51; Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 53, Article 147; Rule 50 of customary IHL.

[79] Суспільне, Російські військові відкрили в Білорусі базар, де продають награбоване в Україні майно — ГУР, 2 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224442-rosijski-vijskovi-vidkrili-v-bilorusi-bazar-de-prodaut-nagrabovane-v-ukraini-majno-gur/; See also Українська Правда,Білоруські ЗМІ виклали відео, як російські окупанти на пошті оформлюють награбоване з України, 3 квітня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/04/3/7336810/.

[80] Українська Правда, Окупанти пограбували квартиру Катерини Гандзюк у Херсоні, 24 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/24/7334313/.

[81] Facebook-сторінка Сумської обласної прокуратури, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=5274020085963619&id=948846185147719.

[82] Суспільне, Російські солдати вкрали на ЧАЕС комп’ютери, чайники, кавоварки — Крамаренко, 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/223892-rosijski-soldati-vkrali-na-caes-komputeri-cajniki-kavovarki-recnik-teroboroni/.

[83] Facebook-сторінка Івана Федорова, 5 квітня 2022, available at: https://www.facebook.com/IvanFedorovMelitopol/videos/1121740132010460/.

[84] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8(2)(b)(xxiii); Geneva Convention (IV) of 1949, Article 28; Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 51(7); Rule 97 of customary IHL.

[85] Суспільне, У Новому Бикові росіяни використовували дітей в якості живого щита, 1 квітня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/224166-u-novomu-bikovi-rosiani-vikoristovuvali-ditej-v-akosti-zivogo-sita/.

[86] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, Article 8.2(b) (iv); Additional Protocol (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 1977, Article 55; Rule 45 of customary IHL.

[87] Українська Правда, Окупанти влучили у нафтобазу під Києвом – ДСНС, 25 березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/25/7334384/.

[88] Суспільне, Війська РФ завдали ракетного удару по нафтобазі на Рівненщині, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/221993-vijska-rf-zavdali-raketnogo-udaru-po-naftobazi-na-rivnensini/.

[89]  Суспільне, Російські війська завдали ракетний удар по нафтобазі у Луцьку, 27 березня 2022, available at: https://suspilne.media/222269-rosijski-vijska-zavdali-raketnogo-udaru-po-naftobazi-u-lucku/.

[90] Українська Правда, Луганщина: від обстрілів росіян загорілися школа і нафтове сховище, 31березня 2022, available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2022/03/31/7335977/.

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